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:: Volume 2, Issue 4 (Spring 2018) ::
joge 2018, 2(4): 71-86 Back to browse issues page
Effects of implicit and explicit practice schedule on performanc and learning of bimanual coordination task of elder
Saeed Nazari Kakvandi , Alireza Saberi Kakhki , Hasan Rohbanfard , Kobra Javadian * , Mohammad Moradi Noor Abadi
Shahid Chamran University Ahvaz. Iran, Ahvaz, Iran
Abstract:   (330 Views)

Introduction: Elderly is a period of alterations in human life that is accompanied by impairments in sensorimotor and cognitive functioning, including working memory especially in the bimanual coordination task. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of the errorless, errorful, and random practice schedules on performance and learning of dual task the bimanual coordination task in the elderly.
Method: In the current Quasi-experimental study which was conducted in Tehran, 36 elderly were selected by convenience sampling from city parks. They were randomly selected and assigned into three equal groups (errorless group, errorful group and random group). Participants practiced  for one day in ten different conditions based on their practice groups. The retention and transfer tests performed 15 trials of15°-35°and 15°-45° movement conditions, respectively, and then a dual task test was performed with 15 trials. To analysis the data, SPSS /19 software and also excel software were used to measure absolute error, repeated measure analysis ANOVA and one-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05)
Results: The results showed that in the acquisition phase, the mean of absolute error in the errorless, erroful and random groups was significant and in fact, the participants of the errorless group with a mean (6.91) showed a lower absolute error. The results also showed that the mean absolute error of the errorless group in the phases of retention (5.58), transfer (9.08), and dual task (9.25) was less than that of the two groups. In fact, the errorless practice protocol has led to a better understanding of dignitaries in the elderly. All groups progressed from pre-test to transfer phase, but the errorless training group had an optimal learning experience than other groups (P <0.05).
Conclusion: Considering the deterioration of information processing and the weakness in working memory, elderly get maximum benefit from tasks, which have less cognitive need for working memory. The errorless practice protocol encourages them to learn implicit. The results of this study support the theory of implicit learning and the theory of reinvestment.
 

Keywords: Implicit and explicit practice, Errorless and errorful practices, Bimanual coordination task, Elderly.
Full-Text [PDF 375 kb]   (233 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: Eldely mental and psychological issues
Received: 2018/05/3
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Nazari Kakvandi S, Saberi Kakhki A, Rohbanfard H, javadian K, Moradi Noor Abadi M. Effects of implicit and explicit practice schedule on performanc and learning of bimanual coordination task of elder . joge. 2018; 2 (4) :71-86
URL: http://joge.ir/article-1-218-en.html


Volume 2, Issue 4 (Spring 2018) Back to browse issues page
نشریه سالمندشناسی Journal of Gerontology
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